News & Press

Green Hills Software Issues Linux Security White Paper: "Many Eyes" —No Assurance Against Many Spies

Second in Series of White Papers on Linux Security Issues

SANTA BARBARA, CA—April 26, 2004 - Dan O'Dowd, Green Hills Software founder and CEO, today issued his second white paper in a series focused on the urgent security threat posed by the use of the Linux operating system in U.S. defense systems, including the Future Combat System and Global Information Grid. Available at, the white paper ‘Many Eyes'—No Assurance Against Many Spies" debunks the fallacy that the "many eyes" with access to Linux source code ensure that it is free of Trojan horses or other malicious software.

"Now that foreign intelligence services and terrorists know that we plan to trust Linux to run some of our most advanced defense systems, we must expect them to deploy spies to infiltrate Linux," O'Dowd said. "The risk is particularly acute since many Linux contributors are based in countries from which the U.S. would never purchase commercial defense software. Some Linux providers even outsource their development to China and Russia.

"The assumption that Linux is safe for defense systems is based on the dangerous misconception that the so-called 'many eyes' looking at Linux source code will find any malicious bugs hidden in Linux by foreign intelligence agents or terrorists. This misconception is based on the silly assumption that looking at source code is an effective way of finding bugs.

"Hundreds of bugs that attackers can exploit to penetrate Linux security are identified every year. Many of these critical security bugs have been in the code for years without being detected by the 'many eyes' looking at the source code. How can anyone believe that the open source process can eradicate all of the cleverly hidden intentional bugs put in by foreign intelligence agents and terrorists when the process can't find thousands of unintentional bugs left lying around in the source code?

"Many people believe that it is impossible for any operating system to have no known bugs in security-critical code, implying that no operating system is really secure. But that is not true. There are no outstanding bugs in our DO-178B Level A certified INTEGRITY-178B real-time operating system. This is the true reliability and security that our national defense systems need."

The white paper released today reviews the mechanisms that can be used to infiltrate and compromise Linux and its source code and explains why malicious code can easily escape detection. The paper also contrasts the vulnerability of Linux with the designed-in security of Green Hills Software's INTEGRITY operating system.

The next Linux security white paper in the series, "Linux Security: Unfit for Retrofit," will be published on May 3. Prior white papers and articles are archived at

About Green Hills Software

Founded in 1982, Green Hills Software, Inc. is the technology leader for real-time operating systems and software development tools for 32- and 64-bit embedded systems. Our royalty-free velOSity microkernel, INTEGRITY RTOS, C/C++ compilers, MULTI and AdaMULTI Integrated Development Environments and TimeMachine debugger, offer a complete development solution that addresses both deeply embedded and high-reliability applications. Green Hills Software is headquartered in Santa Barbara, CA, with European headquarters in the United Kingdom.

Green Hills Software, the Green Hills logo, MULTI, INTEGRITY, velOSity, AdaMULTI and TimeMachine are trademarks or registered trademarks of Green Hills Software, Inc. in the U.S. and/or internationally. All other trademarks and products are the property of their respective owners.

North American Sales Contact:
Green Hills Software, Inc.
30 West Sola Street,
Santa Barbara, CA 93101,
Tel: 805-965-6044
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Green Hills Software Ltd.
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Media Contacts:
Green Hills Software, Inc.
Lynn J. Robinson
(805) 965-6044
Patterson & Associates
Barbara Stewart
(480) 488-6909
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